WASHINGTON — (Sept. 2018) Recently declassified documents https://nsarchive.gwu.edu/briefing-book/nuclear-vault/2018-08-15/us-nuclear-war-plan-option-sought-destruction-china-soviet-union-viable-societies#_edn13
shed light on a U.S. nuclear war plan developed in 1964 by the Pentagon’s Joint
Staff to bomb Russia – then the Soviet Union – and China with nuclear weapons
so extensively that it would destroy them “as viable societies.” The war plan
itself, known as Single Integrated Operational Plan 64 (SIOP-64), has not been
declassified, as no SIOP has ever been released to the public by the United
However, newly declassified documents that record the Pentagon Joint Staff’s review of SIOP-64 were recently made available through George Washington University’s National Security Archive project. The documents reveal numerous details about the still-classified plan that shine light on the Pentagon’s willingness to wage nothing short of total war against its adversaries at the time. In particular, the documents show that the plan sought to accomplish the destruction of Russian and Chinese society by targeting and eliminating their industrial potential while also wiping out the majority of their urban populations. Still more troubling, urban civilians were proposed to be the main target and measure of the U.S. nuclear war plan as the Joint Staff sought to use “population loss as the primary yardstick for effectiveness in destroying the enemy society, with only collateral attention to industrial damage.” https://nsarchive2.gwu.edu/nukevault/ebb281/2A.pdf
David H. Adrian could have most likely been carrying nuclear bombs on his AF airplane when he crash landed on Wake Island in the 1960s, due to 3 out of 4 engines burning rapidly due to electrical shorts and overheating, in those reckless and heady times, not long after the USAF dropped A-bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Just 20 years later Capt. Adrian trained all the pilots of Korean Airlines, one of those pilots being responsible for the KAL007 cold war shootdown and standoff on Sept. 1, 1983, which three weeks later (Sept. 26, 1983) resulted in the famous incident of "the Russian who prevented WW3," Stanislav Petrov, the lieutenant colonel in the Soviet Union's Air Defense Forces who died very recently.
David H. Adrian was in two 'near' end-of-the-world COLD WAR scenarios. As pilot in the Wake Island emergency crash of the early 1960s, and the training of the Korean Airline pilots in the early 1980s, one of whom ended up flying into Soviet Air space in 1983 causing the KAL007 commercial jet to disintegrate and disappear forever. Read more below.
Many of the classmates of David H. Adrian, went very high up the ladder into top positions in NASA, NSA, CIA, and NRO after graduating with him from this very special officers corps training grad school for the military in 1956, during the height of the Cold War. About 47 grads from Class of M'56 [half who went on in internal affairs of NORAD; CIA; DOD; REDCAP; CALSPAN; AMRAAM; NRO; NGA; NGIA
56M Pilot Training
Class/Pilot Officers who graduated 1956, roster
New York Times latest article on Eisenhower's targets for A-bombs location list, 1956, in case of need...recently declassified by THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES of Washington DC
DAVID H. ADRIAN
David served in Japan at Yokota Air Base in secret TDY spy flights over China and Russia in the early 1960s. Infrared photography, etc. Reconnaissance flights. Just before, during, and directly after Gary Powers U2 spy-plane shootdown. Afterwards was professor at the Citadel Military University in Charleston, SC. He divorced his wife/family and left the Air Force, circa 1965. Then became a pilot for ONA and Evergreen. In the early 1980s he was the flight trainer for the Korean Airlines KAL pilots. KAL had just purchased many Boeing aircraft.
KAL007: Parallels to MH17? Read in VETERANS TODAY how Captain Adrian trained the KAL pilots, including the one who veered into Russian airspace
Spy Satellite Encyclopedia: The Amazing History of the Early Photoreconnaissance Satellites, CORONA, Gambit, Hexagon, SAMOS, Lunar Orbiter Camera, ELINT, MIDAS Missile Warning, NRO Program Management – published by NRO
The previously classified documents in this collection, converted for accurate flowing-text e-book format reproduction, were released by the NRO in September 2011 as part of its 50th anniversary.
· File Size: 46985 KB
· Simultaneous Device Usage: Unlimited
· Publisher: Progressive Management (October 20, 2012)
· Publication Date: October 20, 2012
· Sold by: Amazon Digital Services LLC
· Language: English
· ASIN: B009UF1816
Recent Okinawa NEWS:
The controversy around this date above unveils the little-known world of Air Force nuclear launch crews on Okinawa – many of them young enlisted men fresh from stateside training – who more than a half-century ago kept watch on the Soviets from reinforced bunkers during one of the most dangerous moments in human history. Bolo Point nuclear missile site at Yomitan, Okinawa, where John Bordne claims he received a launch order.
The Okinawa missiles of October-- Oct. 28, 1962.
Airman John Bordne; Capt. William Bassett; 498th Tactical Missle Group TAC; FOIA
Special Classmates of David Adrian back in this 1956 special training cell during the height of the Cold War
John F. Mitchell
In his 28 years at CAL (later named CALSPAN), John was also involved in Human Factors and Training, with such programs as the Navy E-2C, F-18A, and T-45, utilizing the Air Force systems approach to training for the B-1A. In addition, he worked at the Real Time Electromagnetic Digitally Controlled Analyzer and Processor (REDCAP) Air Force facility, which was built and installed at CALSPAN.
The purpose of REDCAP was to simulate the former Soviet Command and Control operations: from Early Warning, Filter Centers , and SAM sites to first line aircraft. It included an elaborate hardware and software simulation of the Soviet AWACS, with four operators making decisions in real-time regarding US bomber penetration.
During his tenure in western New York , John took the opportunity to fly the T-33A, F-100C, F-101B, and F-4C with the Air National Guard at Niagara Falls , where his unit had Air Defense Command alert duties with the F-101 Voodoo interceptor. He retired from the military in November 1982 after 28 years of active and reserve duty.
When the REDCAP facility relocated from Buffalo to Edwards in 1995, John retired from CALSPAN. Since five of seven children work and live in the Washington, DC metropolitan area, John and Sue decided to move to nearby Northern Virginia, where he took a position as a cartographer with the Defense Mapping Agency (later renamed the National Imagery and Mapping Agency) and more recently to the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). He worked until his retirement from Civil Service in February of 2003.
Three years after graduation from flight training, John married Susan A. LaFramboise of Michigan in 1959. Their seven children include four in the D.C.-area and one in St. Louis : two work at NGA Spatial Intelligence Agency, and one each are with NASA Greenbelt, CIA Langley, and the Navy. Of the two remaining children, one lives in Rhode Island and the other in Michigan , where he works for Astra-Zeneca pharmaceuticals.
Lt. Colonel John F. Mitchell, Plaintiff-appellee, v. the United States, Defendant-appellant, 930 F.2d 893 (Fed. Cir. 1991)
NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 2004 Mobile Integrated Geospatial-Intelligence System (MIGS II)
The MIGS first appeared after Operation Allied Force in Kosovo, when NGA recognized the need for a deployable system able to move with the troops. The MIGS was equipped with the essentials to maintain life support and easy transportation and was able to withstand harsh conditions. MIGS II was a leaner version deployed to support Operation Iraqi Freedom. It resided on a HMMWV (High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle) and could be unpacked within two hours. Personnel inside the MIGS had the necessary capabilities to produce NGA-tailored products to support the warfighter in the Caucasus theater.
As the leader of the “Tiger Team” of flight directors who brought the Apollo 13 spaceship safely back to Earth on April 17, 1970 , Gene Kranz demonstrated extraordinary courage and heroism. The hit film, Apollo 13, chronicles Kranz’s struggle to devise the plan that would safely bring the ship and its crew of three astronauts home after its oxygen system failed. Actor Ed Harris portrays Kranz in the film, which was directed by Ron Howard.
Kranz retired from NASA in 1994 after 37 years of federal service, and is currently a consultant and speaker. “Failure is not an option,” the motto that carried him through the Apollo 13 crisis, is a major theme of his motivational message.
After receiving his BS degree in aeronautical engineering from Parks College of St. Louis University in 1954, Kranz was commissioned in the U.S. Air Force and flew high performance jet fighter aircraft, including the F-80, F-86, and F-100. In 1958, he worked as a flight-test engineer for McDonnell Aircraft, developing the Quail Decoy Missile for B-52 and B-47 aircraft.\
Kranz joined the NASA Space Task Group at Langley , Virginia in 1960 and was assigned the position of assistant flight director for Project Mercury. He assumed flight director duties for all Project Gemini Missions, and was branch chief for Flight Control Operations. He was selected as division chief for Flight Control in 1968, and continued his duties as a flight director for the Apollo 11 Lunar Landing before taking over the leadership of the Apollo 13 “Tiger Team.” He was discharged from the Air Force Reserve as a Captain in 1972
He contributed his expertise to a number of other NASA missions during his career, including the Skylab Program. After the Skylab Program concluded, he was named deputy director of Flight Operations for NASA, which gave him the responsibility for space flight planning, training, and mission operations, aircraft operations, and flight crew operations. In 1983, he was assigned the post of director of Mission Operations, and given the responsibility for all aspects of mission design, development, maintenance, and operations of all related mission facilities, as well as the preparation of the Space Shuttle flight software.
Kranz has received many awards and honors, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, which he received from President Nixon for the Apollo 13 mission, and his designation as a Distinguished Member of the Senior Executive Service by President Reagan.
After retirement, Kranz served as a flight engineer on a B-17 “Flying Fortress” and constructed an aerobatic biplane. In April 2000, he published a memoir about his experiences in the space program, Failure is Not an Option: Mission Control from Mercury to Apollo 13 and Beyond. His book, a New York Times best-seller, has been selected by The History Channel as the basis for a documentary on Mission Control. He and his wife are the parents of six children, and reside in Texas .
At the time of our April 27th, 1956 graduation from pilot training (in my case, at Webb AFB) Fred hadn’t yet taken the plunge of signing on for USAF career status, so the first assignment was to Troop Carrier, now known as Tactical Airlift. This was to Pope AFB in North Carolina , flying the venerable Fairchild C-119. Flying hours added up fast in those days, so by mid-1958 Aircraft Commander status had been attained.
Those were the days of Sputnik and the “Space Race”, so missiles were the hot ticket de jour. When his engineering degree opened the door, Fred took the opportunity to go to Europe with the Martin Mace (TM-76A then, later MGM-13B) system. First there was a year of training, starting with a PCS to the first officer class on the system at Lowry AFB in Denver . This was followed another PCS to launch crew training at Orlando AFB, FL.The system was brand new and training was combined with final acceptance testing, so his crew was fortunate to have two live launches while on TDY to the desert test range at Holloman AFB, NM. In July 1959 the unit deployed the Mace to Sembach Air Base, Germany .
In Germany working up to operational status with the new system was very demanding, but there was time for the required “proficiency flying”, at first in the venerable “Gooney Bird” (C-47). This included excitement like Berlin Corridor checks (and visits to pre-wall Berlin itself, of course!) and other treats of those forgotten times of “weekend cross-countries”. For the last two years Fred was attached for flying to a small, specially-equipped, mission-coded T-33 unit at Sembach. Their mission was to provide “simulated missile” training for ground-based weapons controllers who would guide the older TM-61 “Matador”, then still operational with other missile units. Considering that these “sim-missile” missions were flown in very tight airspace confines next to a very hostile border, this “behind the lines”, additional duty flying was some of the most exacting of the career!
A couple of years after retirement Fred hired on with Lockheed at Marietta GA , as a reliability/maintainability engineer. The work was on a classified, “black” program in an informally named “Skunkworks East”. The project was eventually cancelled, but to our knowledge is still classified, so nothing more can be said about that. During this period Linda continued teaching French in Warner Robins High School , so Fred commuted each week to a condo in Marietta for the Lockheed job. When the Lockheed program was cancelled, it was decided that all this travel wasn’t really necessary, so Warner Robins became “home” for good.
In 1974 Fred was selected for Military Assistance advisory duty, which meant first attending the Defense Language Institute at the Presidio of Monterey, California; followed by assignment to Caracas , Venezuela as the aircraft maintenance advisor to the Venezuelan Air Force. This was a most interesting assignment, but when in 1977 the assignment orders back in the states was to a SAC northern-tier base, it was time to turn in the blue-suit in favor of civilian life.
There followed many adventures and deployments with the “Herk”. Among them was with a 1964 deployment with a TDY “rotation squadron” to Europe , from which the squadron further suddenly deployed to Africa on “Operation Dragon Rouge”. This was the combat airdrops in the former Belgian Congo of a battalion of Belgian “Paracommandos” that the Pope crews had flown from Europe to the Congo, the task force being sent to rescue a couple of thousand multi-national hostages that had been held for months and were being threatened with massacre by rebel forces in a very vicious civil war. Among other awards for that mission, the parent 464th TCWg won the Mackay Trophy for 1964.
He played a critical role in getting the Apollo spacecraft approved for flight after the disastrous fire on Apollo 1, and then went on to play a leading role in the successful training of astronauts for Apollo 11 and Apollo 13. His promotion to Lt. Colonel was due in part to an evaluation written by James A. Lovell, Captain USN, for his work on Apollo 13, which was endorsed by Thomas R. Stafford, Colonel USAF, and Apollo astronaut. The last big bang in his post Air Force career, with Lockheed Martin, was leading the launch team for the 1st Titan IV Centaur/Milstar launch on February 7, 1994.
Details: Flying and the Air Force were a very important part of his life and fortunately they were both good to him. After graduating with you, his classmates in 56-M, Lloyd went on to San Antonio where he flew B-25's and B-29's during multi-engine training. The next stop was McClellan AFB in Sacramento and his first date with an RC-121 Super Constellation. After a quick trip to Montgomery for Squadron Officer's school, he returned to Sacramento and drilled holes in the sky over the Pacific until he was transferred to Yakota AFB outside of Tokyo. At Yakota he kept current in a T-33 (becoming an instructor pilot) while working as an Operations Officer, where he honed his skills in planning and logistics that would help him succeed at NASA and Martin Marietta.
Three short years later Lloyd was back at McClellan for his second date with "Connie". He participated in the Cuban Missile Crisis; flying over the ocean, right on the deck, in an RC-121 (with the radar pointing up) providing critical radar coverage for reconnaissance aircraft over-flying Cuba .
In 1963 the Air Force took Lloyd out of the sky and moved him underground as a Minuteman Missile Launch Crew Commander and Instructor at Whiteman AFB in Knob Noster, Missouri . At Whiteman, Lloyd earned an MBA from the University of Missouri , and actually got to launch a Minuteman from Vandenberg AFB as part of a test. The warhead landed in an atoll in the South Pacific, close enough to the aiming point to have vaporized it with a real nuke. To keep current, Lloyd flew a U-3A between stints in the capsule and a graduate school classroom.
In November of 1967 the Reeder family moved to Friendswood , Texas as Lloyd traded an inground capsule for one designed to fly to the moon. His original assignment at NASA was as a liaison between NASA and USAF. However, he immediately got bored and volunteered to participate in a test of the Apollo spacecraft to monitor and evaluate redesigned components. Along with two other Air Force pilots, Lloyd completed a few months of Astronaut training, donned a spacesuit, headed into the vacuum chamber and climbed into an Apollo spacecraft that was sitting on a turntable, surrounded by sun lamps on one side and radiators filled with liquid nitrogen on the other, to simulate the rigors of spaceflight. He was the first person to open the new escape hatch in a "space" environment. The 2TV-1 test went so well it was halted ahead of schedule and the spacecraft was approved for flight. A picture of Lloyd in his spacesuit made it into a "Look" magazine article about Apollo's race to the moon.
Participation in the 2TV-1 program brought Lloyd to the attention of the astronaut office, and an assignment as Mission Training Coordinator for Apollo 11. He coordinated all training and travel activities for prime and back-up crews. Demand for their time was incredible. Right before the launch he even coordinated family visits and scheduled haircuts. Some demands on the crew came from unexpected places. For example, since both of their sons were Eagle Scouts, Ruth Ann worked on Lloyd until he promised to ask the crew (also Eagle Scouts) to say hello to the Boy Scouts at the 1969 Jamboree in Idaho . The crew agreed, and their greeting was written into the flight plan and delivered during a television broadcast on their way to the moon.
As a side bar: Deke Slayton's (Mercury astronaut) and Dave Lowe's (Director of NASA) sons were in the same troop, at the Jamboree, with Lloyd's two sons, Mike and Lloyd. However, his two sons (Lloyd and Mike) were chosen to welcome Frank Borman (Gemini and Apollo 8 Astronaut) to close the Jamboree; a task typically reserved for the President. Nixon was busy welcoming the Apollo 11 crew back to Earth, so he appropriately sent an astronaut in his place.
Lloyd's responsibilities with Apollo 11 wound down during the crew de-briefing. He claims that he was only a glorified tape recorder operator. Isn't that exactly how you would expect him to describe the once in a lifetime thrill of sitting next to one of the original seven astronauts, Deke Slayton, while listening to an analysis of the first landing on the moon and the flight there and back? By the way, he was present for the debriefing of the Apollo 13 crew after their fateful mission.
His work on Apollo 11 was greatly appreciated by the entire crew, so Michael Collins wrote a letter of thanks, which he signed along with Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin. Lloyd's achievements were also recognized by the Air Force, who awarded him the Legion of Merit, which was presented by Colonel Aldrin.
As an encore, Lloyd was appointed Mission Training Coordinator for Apollo 13. The entire family played a role in this mission. Lloyd's sons (Lloyd and Mike) mowed Ken Mattingly's yard so he could concentrate on training and the older of his two daughters (Ruth Ellen) exposed Ken to measles. His youngest child (Susan) played a role by keeping him entertained in the evenings.
Like others in your class, Lloyd participated in the South East Asian War games. In 1970 the Air Force ordered him on a third date with "Connies", so he returned to McClellan for a refresher course before heading to Korat RAFB, Thailand in October. He flew EC-121's that were dressed in camouflage and loaded with electronic gear, up and down trails in Laos and Cambodia as well as North and South Viet Nam . Technicians in the back monitored sensors and called in air strikes on trucks and combatants. One unfortunate evening they called in a strike on elephants that had escaped from a logging camp. He also flew a "special" mission out of Saigon. The task was tracking a VC carrier pigeon, loaded with electronic tracking devices, back to its headquarters. Strike aircraft, soldiers, and Marines were staged and waiting for a target. The operation was scrubbed when the pigeon died of a heart attack while trying to climb to altitude with a load that was significantly above his max designed/rated takeoff weight.
Ultimately Lloyd accrued nearly 7,000 hours in various versions of the Lockheed Super Constellation, which proves that he truly is a "Real Man"; because everyone knows that only a "Real Man" can handle three pieces of tail at once.
Back stateside in October of 1971, Lloyd began working with NORAD at the Cheyenne Mountain facility in Colorado Springs , moving through a variety of staff and leadership assignments. His final command was as Chief of the NORAD Space and Missile Intelligence Center. Lloyd retired from the Air Force in July of 1976 to join Martin-Marietta to work on Space Defense Command and Control Systems. He later worked on the military space shuttle launching complex at Vandenberg AFB before the program was cancelled. Lloyd retired from Martin in January of 1995, batting 1000, after the successful launch of the first Titan IV Centaur/Milstar combination on 7 Feb 94 .
After retiring from a second successful career, Lloyd settled into his woodworking shop and garden. He also became an avid bird and wildlife watcher in the comfort of his own back yard on Denver High-Line Canal . Currently Lloyd resides in an Alzheimer's assisted care facility in Littleton , Colorado . If he could remember you, he would laugh and joke with you, and enjoy sharing stories. Thank you for allowing me to tell you his story in his place.
Respectively prepared and submitted to Class ‘56M by your classmate's son, Lloyd R. Reeder, with the help and support of the entire Reeder family.
Luke H. Boykin http://website56m.tripod.com/id16.html
Initial and Founding Director of AMRAAM initiated in 1976 by DOD. Last Position was Director Joint System Program Office, Advanced Medium Range Air to Air Missile. Retired as Colonel USAF in 1980. Became southeastern consultant for Alliant TechSystems when they were bought out by Hercules Aerospace. Retired again in 1998 .
Tim T. Daugherty
Colonel Tim T. Daugherty (Red) was born in Desloge , MO on 18 October 1932 . He graduated from the University of Mississippi in 1954 and entered the Air Force as a 2nd Lieutenant on 15 March 1955 . He completed primary pilot training at Spence AB , GA and basic pilot training at a combination of Williams AFB, AZ and Laughlin AFB, TX, receiving his pilot's wings from Laughlin in April 1956 (Class of 56M).
Thomas W. Fischer
NATO and SHELL AVIATION
The transfer to Atlanta by Shell in 1962 took care of any more of the C119 flying, but things weren't much better there, since the Reserve and Guard were flying C-97's and C-123's respectively. So I opted for the Reserve and the 123's for the next three years. Then the Reserve converted to C-124's, and if I thought the other machines were bad, I hadn't seen anything yet. So I resigned from the unit after a few rides, but they were persistent in their efforts to get me back, so I returned in late 1967. Bad timing; the unit was activated January 1968 for 18 months. Shell put me on extended military leave and the unit started a primary mission of supplying Viet Nam and flying out-sized cargo for NATO. Between the two missions I got plenty of time grinding my way to Southeast Asia and flying through Europe. My family, which now consisted of my wife and two young daughters joined me for three months at RAF Mildenhall, which was a wonderful opportunity for us to get a good look at a lot of Europe. Shell was glad to see me after my release from active duty, and it was back to Avation Sales. It's hard to imagine a more pleasant job. Shell Aviation employed several luminaries in the aviation field, such as Jimmy Doolittle, Douglas Bader, Roscoe Turner, Milt Hammon, to name a few, and it was great fun to hear all their stories, and work with them. The airlines and fixed base operators were also full of crusty old aviators.
But, all good things have to end, and the Shell experience did just that when they asked me to come to Head Office, which had recently changed from NYC to Houston, a place my family and I agreed we did not want to live. After turning down two such offers, I felt I had damaged my career with Shell, so I found other uses for my good high level contacts with airlines and aviation clients. I joined Alexander & Alexander, the leading aviation risk consultant and insurance broker. We stayed in Atlanta for the balance of my business career, which ended in 1996, when a competitor purchased A&A.
Jack C. Cummings
1972 saw Jack assigned as the Director of R & D Procurement for the Air Force Systems Command (AFSC) at Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio . This unit was responsible for support of the six AFSC laboratories in Area B heavily involved in the early space and airborne laser programs. The first pilot training simulator was contracted for by this unit as was a good deal of the F-16 program. As a side note this was the unit that leased the aircraft to CALSPAN that John Mitchell was involved with.
In 1958 Jack was assigned to the audit office at Rein Main AB in Germany to audit a variety of research and development contracts with universities and industry in Germany , Belgium , and France as well as the modification of F-84s being given to Germany . Proficiency flying was again maintained flying the C-47 throughout Europe including the Berlin corridor, Athens , Greece , Tripoli , Egypt , etc.
1959 found Jack at the SABENA Plant in Brussels , Belgium auditing the IRAN contracts for a number of Air Force aircraft before being transferred to Mather AFB, Sacramento , California .
From 1960 to 1966 Jack flew T-29s for navigator training around the western United States before being assigned to Air Command and Staff College in 1966 where he also took advantage of the opportunity to get a Masters degree. Flying proficiency was again in the C-47. Completing the command and Staff College and masters program in August of 66 resulted in an assignment to the Phyllis Ann program with duty at Tan Sun Knut, Saigon , Vietnam . 1972 saw Jack assigned as the Director of R & D Procurement for the Air Force Systems Command (AFSC) at Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio. This unit was responsible for support of the six AFSC laboratories in Area B heavily involved in the early space and airborne laser programs. The first pilot training simulator was contracted for by this unit as was a good deal of the F-16 program. As a side note this was the unit that leased the aircraft to CALSPAN that John Mitchell was involved with.
The Washington D.C. area called in 1974 and Jack was assigned to AFSC first as the Chief of R & D and Base procurement and then as the Director of Contract Management.
This assignment was primarily a policy job for AFSC wide coverage of procurement activities. Flying proficiency was maintained in the C-118 until excused from flying.
This was the final USAF assignment and Jack retired in August of 1976.
Jack went to work for the Energy Research and Development Agency that shortly became the Department of Energy in 1976 at the Richland Operations Office in Richland, Washington (Hanford Site) as the Director of Contracts and Procurement.
Besides competing and selecting a billion dollar site operating contractor the job included the selection and award of major construction contracts for nuclear facilities and nuclear research. To keep his hand in flying Jack acquired a new Rockwell Commander 114 for flying around the greater northwest.
1981 found Jack out of government and starting his own consulting business in Bellevue, Washington. This business provides assistance to both industry and government in dealing with federal procurement issues.
John A. Sells
After Vance AFB several of us were sent to Randolph AFB for a 40 hour introduction to heavy aircraft in the B-29. From Randolph , I was assigned to the 552nd. Airborne Early Warning and Control Wing (AWE&C) at McClellan AFB, CA. flying the RC121 Super Connies. Lloyd Reeder, Ken Rehg and Bill Mauser were part of the group. The counterpart operation was at Otis AFB, MA. After separation, I joined the Reserves for seven years and flew the C119 out of Willow Grove NAS, Philadelphia and Clinton County AB , OH . and the C124 out of Tinker AFB, OK. Along the way until recently, I flew some general aviation. I reached the rank of major.
My civilian career was in the insurance business and financial services. At one point I earned my MBA from the University of Denver . Pat and I have four children, eleven grand children and one great g/c.
47 grads from Class of '56 [half who went on in internal affairs! NORAD; CIA; DOD; REDCAP; CALSPAN; AMRAAM; NRO; NGA; NGIA]
Elmer assumed command of the 307th Air Refueling Group at Travis AFB, California in May 1978 and held that position until retiring from active duty in August 1980 with 26 years of service.
Elmer then accepted a position with Lockheed Missiles & Space Company in Sunnyvale , California in September 1980, where he performed various management and staff duties in a black program until accepting an assignment with the Lockheed Austin Division in early 1984 with the PLSS program. He continued his work on the PLSS Protected Underground Facility until completion and accepted a one year assignment in Las Vegas in August 1986 as manager of Operations and Maintenance Support during PLSS flight testing. Upon returning to Austin , Elmer performed various assignments until retiring from Lockheed in January 1992 with 12 years service.
Randolph P. Galt
Randolph spent a year in the Australian outback and lived in New Mexico and Hawaii before settling in Los Angeles .
Randy was married to Anne Baxter, the famous movie actress, who was also the granddaughter of Frank Lloyd Wright, the architect. Their marriage lasted from 1960 to 1969 and produced two daughters, Melissa, a nationally acclaimed interior designer and Maginel, a Roman Catholic nun living and working in Rome , Italy .
Melissa said her father was quite a character. "My father really was an 'Indiana Jones" type." He tried his hand at cattle ranching in Australia , he did something else in Japan , he would boat to Tahiti , work for Signal oil for a bit. He did pretty much what he felt like."
Theodore W. Golder
On April 27, 1956 , immediately after receiving my wings and commission, I was married at the Laughlin AFB chapel. Subsequently, I went to “Aircraft Observer Training for Pilots” school at James Connally AFB, Waco, Texas and graduated with Navigator/Bombardier ratings. I was then assigned to the 98th Bomb Wing at Lincoln AFB, Lincoln , Nebraska where I flew the B-47E until May of 1963. My next assignment was a three-year Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) undergraduate Industrial Engineering program at Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona which was completed in January 1966. After receiving my degree I was sent to Sheppard AFB, Wichita Falls , Texas as Chief of the Management Engineering Detachment. This job entailed measuring the productivity and cost efficiency of the various base activities and studying the overall need for military manning or the cost effectiveness of using Federal civilians versus contract civilians to provide base support services. My “secondary job” was as a C-54 base flight pilot flying some 400 hours in 40 states in just eight months. Received orders assigning me to Hurlburt Field, Fort Walton Beach , Florida in January 1967 where I received training in the C-123 for cargo hauling and the “Ranch Hand” Agent Orange Program. After training I was assigned to Nakom Phanom RTAFB, Thailand in an unique CIA program called ”Candlesticks” –flying night missions as a forward air controller (FAC) logging 200 combat hours in 50 missions over Laos and North Vietnam . Five months into my tour I was sent TDY to Bangkok ’s Don Muang RTAFB to instruct Thai pilots in C-123 combat tactics. During my year, I logged 900 hours in the C-123. Back from southeast Asia in March of 1968 I returned to SAC with B-52 training at Castle AFB , Atwater , California and subsequent assignment to Barksdale AFB, Shreveport , Louisiana. While at Barksdale, in July 1969 I returned to SEA on one”arc-light” tour (Anderson AFB, Kadena AFB, U-Tapao AFB) logging 300 combat hours in 40 missions. Returning to Barksdale, I was assigned to Command Post duty which led to a PCS as a controller at Castle AFB, California in January 1971 and a secondary job as base flight pilot flying the T-29B. In May of 1972 I was again selected for AFIT at Arizona State University receiving my Masters Degree in Engineering Management in August 1973. Next assignment was to the Pentagon as a Manpower Temp Agency Management staff officer regulating and directing to Command and base level manpower offices the need for military manning and the cost effectiveness of using Federal civilians or contract civilians in base support functions. I elected to retire from my Air Force career in August 1977. Retired in Merced , California and remain here today. After a year of loafing, I joined other Air Force retirees in the Curtis Mathes retail television business until February 1996. Since retirement from the Air Force in 1977 much of my time has been devoted to travel and golf. Personal data includes two children: Daughter, Linda Anderson, Central Intelligence Agency Headquarters, CIA.
Kenneth Hood MacKay, Jr.
Married 4 June 1959 to Anne Selph MacKay four sons, seven grandchildren. Completed single-engine training at Del Rio , Texas. Assigned to Sewart AFB, TN Flew C119s and C123s 1000 hours. Graduated from Law School June 1961. Florida House of Representatives 1968 to 1974. Florida Senate 1974 to 1980. US Congress 1982 to 1988. Lt. Governor of Florida 1990 to 1998. Governor (serving remainder of term) 12/1998 to 01/1999. Presidential Special Envoy to Latin America 02/1999 to 01/2001. Currently adjunct professor at Univ. of Florida College of Law. Co-founder of Center for Rule of Law in the Americas. Juvenile dependency mediator.
Tilden M. "Bubba" Shanahan
First I was flying B-25s on Shoran Training then T-29s for Navigator/Bombardier Training. While living in Sacramento I met and married Barbara Brower who was working for Aerojet General. She is still my wife after 46 years, four children and siix grandchildren. For most of that time we have lived in Atlanta with some long commutes in between. We still call Atlanta home.
After discharge in 1958 we moved to Phoenix where I worked in sales for a year before joining Frontier Airlines as a copilot in Denver and Omaha . Frontier downsized me out of a job (this was 1959; sound familiar?) so we moved to Atlanta with the late Southern Airways, later Republic Airlines. I flew DC-3s, M-404s, and DC-9s as copilot and then captain. I also flew as a Check Airman and for a time I was Vice President of Flight Ops. After retiring at age 51, I went into the business of starting low cost and commuter airlines (Jet Express, dba Midway, Bader Express) and ended up as Vice President Flight Ops for Atlantic Southeast Airlines in Atlanta . I finally retired in 1998.
I stayed in the Reserve and finished 28 years with two recalls. In the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1963 we were to air land the 82nd Airborne flying C-123s. That was a short recall when the Russians backed down. When the North Koreans captured the U.S. intelligence ship Pueblo in 1968 we were recalled flying Ole Shaky, C-124s. We ended up flying all over the world, starting with Viet Nam and Tet. But in the last year we were part of a provisional Wing out of Mildenhall RAFB , UK . We flew Europe and the Middle East and some downrange to the Caribbean and South America . Except for low and slow it was fun flying.
As I said above, I retired from the airline business in 1998 with a brief return to work in 1999.
On January 1, 1956 , I was enroute to Laughlin AFB in Del Rio , TX . I was married three days prior on Dec. 30, 1955 to a beautiful Swedish blonde, Alice Carlson, so we were on our honeymoon. We rode in style as we had bought a new red and white Ford convertible. After several months of basic training I made a decision not to sign indefinite but to serve out my specified time contract of three years on active duty. Between graduation from college and going in the Air Force, I worked for Procon, Inc. which hired me out of college and I promised to return after three years. If I had it to do over again, I would have stayed on active duty. So I was given a choice of bases, either Larson AFB in Moses Lake, WA, where they had C-124s or Pope AFB in NC where they had C-119s. Since I didn’t like the C-word in front of airplane types, I chose Larson for the simple reason I had never lived out west. There I flew out of base flight in C-47s and got four to eight hrs. per month flying time. I was assigned as group maintenance officer as I had a BSME degree from GA. Tech. The work and flying was rather uneventful and I chose to serve out my time on active duty. In 1958, Alice and I left and returned to Chicago where I started work with Procon in Des Plaines. I was to be a construction superintendent trainee in building oil refineries and petrochemical plants. However, at the time, construction jobs were few, so I worked in the process design department doing more chemical engineering than mechanical. I immediately joined the AF reserve at O’Hare Airport flying the C-119. (the Air Guard was full). After several years the future of the company looked dim and the construction in the industry had slowed down immensely. So in 1961 I was hired by the AF as a civilian engineer to work on the Titan and Atlas missile systems at Norton AFB, CA. I joined the C-119 reserve unit at March AFB. After a few years I worked for TRW, Inc. in San Bernardino , CA in support of the missiles at Vandenberg AFB. In 1965 they had few new contracts with the AF and many of the engineers were leaving for greener pastures. Some of my fellow pilots in the reserve were being hired by the airlines. So one day while passing through the LA airport, I saw a United Airlines sign. I picked up an employment application and after an interview and check ride in a simulator I was hired. I started in the spring of 1966 and flew for 30 years until I retired in the spring of 1996. I flew out of O’Hare my entire career.
http://www.aviastar.org/air/usa/boeing_b-50.php?p=5#cmt Yokota airbase personnel speak out today!
Captain Chun Byung-In, the pilot of KAL 007, was 45 years old at the time of the shootdown, leaving a wife, a 10-year old son, and a 13-year old daughter
KAL 007 – Korean Air Lines Passenger Flight #007 – Korean pilot Capt. Chun trained by David H. Adrian, a trainer from the USA; Captain Chun went down with KAL007 on 1 Sept. 1983
What the Russian MIG pilot Lieut. Col. Gennadi Osipovich had to say about downing of KAL007:
"Long after the "Boeing" incident, I was delivering
a fighter from the factory, when the engine stopped. There were ammunition
warehouses below. However, I was able to aim the plane off to the side.
However, I had to parachute out at a low altitude. I injured my spine. It was
almost a year before I recovered. I was physically unable to fly after this.
But if I couldn't fly, then what was there for me to do? I wasn't cut out to be
put in charge of some warehouse. Therefore, I retired into the reserves as soon
as I was eligible. People not associated with the air force do not understand
my decision. They laugh and call me foolish..."
"You mentioned people playing it safe and about the "libretto" for your television interview. What did you mean by that?" "I was surprised that some of the important leaders were so wishy washy. Because for the most part, I have no doubts, even now, that we were right in what we did. For a period of two and a half hours, an unidentified aircraft was violating our air space. During this time, it flew over 2,000 kilometers. All the air traffic controllers from foreign governments were silent, busy chewing gum. What do you order done in such a situation? Sit with folded hand? We shot it down legally. But later they began to lie about little things. They said, you know, that the aircraft was flying without lights, that tracer shells were fired as a warning, that I was in radio communications with him, or tried to do this on emergency frequency 121.5 Mhz. Why, there wasn't any time for this! That would mean that I would be out of contact with the ground. I am sure that we tried too hard to appear completely innocent and as a result, we over did it..."
"As for me, I did my duty to the end. If I were ever in the same situation, (I am talking about an intruder of course, not a civilian aircraft with passengers on board) I would do everything I could to intercept the aircraft. That is what I trained and studied for all my life. And that, be assured, is not boasting."
"Were you decorated for this action?"
"No. One of my comrades received a promotion, another received a medal. But I - nothing. But that is not the point."
"What do you do today?"
"What is there for a pensioner to do? I bought a plot of land. Built a home. I raise strawberries. I am expecting a grandson. My daughter promised by summer... I dream of giving him my uniform. That is all I have left from the air force. I am still waiting for the truth to come out about the "Boeing", how it could have happened, how it came to be over our territory, what was its purpose? And more. Was the "black box" ever found?! And if yes, what does it show? This is not idle curiosity; it's vital so such mistakes are not repeated. By the way, I heard that back on Sakhalin, they found the "Boeing." That they even examined it. But they did not find any people on it. However, I explain this, by the fact that there are crabs in the sea off Sakhalin, that immediately devour everything... I heard that they only found a hand in a black glove. Maybe that was the hand that piloted the aircraft I shot down? You know, I am not sure even now that there were passengers on board. You can't write everyone off to crabs... There must have been something left?... I still subscribe to the old version, that this was a spy plane. In any case, he didn't overfly our territory by accident."
ENTIRE 1956 CLASS